The condition of Ulster in Shane O'Neill's time is shown by the following report relating to the state of Ireland,
written May 8, 1552.
The Chancellor of Ireland to the Duke of Northumberland, relating to the state of Ireland.
"The next countrye to O'Donnell is Ferranaghe [Fermanagh], M'Guyer [Maguire], his countrye; a stronge countrye, and M'Guyer that is nowe a younge handsome gentleman, and maye make cc. kerne, and xxiii horsemen. And he, the Calloughe O'Donnell, Tirraghe Lynnaghe O'Neyll, Henri M'Shane, and all the rest be joyned with the Baron of Dongannon to serve the king's majestie, and all these be younge men, and of most power in the North, soe as yf the earl and O'Donell were at such libertye as ever they were, without those they had noe in power. And so by Gode's grace the thinge well followed, as I trust in God it shall, this summer will make a quyett Irelande."
The following description of the Counties of Ulster was written by Marshal Sir Henry Bagnal in 1586.
Fermanagh- "The Countie of Farnmanaghe conteyneth all Farmanaghe, Tyrmingraghe, and Tyrmyn Omungan. The Capten of all this Countie is Sir Conohour McGwyer, left alwaies to the commandment and rule of Tur[logh] Oneyle, and yet he very desirious to depend on the quene. He is able to make (and most of his own nation) 80 horsemen, 240 shot, and 300 kerne. His countrye for the most part is very strong of woods and bogge, especially nere the great lake called Earne, wherein is divers ilands, full of woodes. Buildinges in this countrye, non of importance."
It is asserted by Hill, that as a result of the flight of the earls and of an act of Parliament known as the 11th of Elizabeth, no less than 3,800,000 acres in Tyrone, Derry, Donegal, Fermanagh and Cavan were placed at the disposal of the crown, and made available for plantation.
.....The plan adopted by King James for the colonization of the six "escheated" counties was to take possession of the finest portions of this great tract of country, amounting in all to nearly four millions of acres; to divide it into small estates, none larger than 2,000 acres; and to grant these to men of known wealh and substance. Those who accepted grants were bound to live on their land themselves, to bring with them English and Scottish settlers, and to build for themselves and for their tenents fortified places for defence, houses to live in, and churches in which to worship. The native Irish were assigned to the poorer lands and less accessable districts; while the allotments to the English and Scots were kept together, so that they might form communities and not mix or inter-marry with the Irish. The errors of former Irish 'plantations' were to be avoided - the mistakes of placing too much land in one hand, and of allowing non-resident proprietors. The purpose was not only to transfer the ownership of the land from Irish to Scot, but to introduce a Scottish population in place of an Irish one...........................
......In Donegal the British only attempted to colonize the eastern portion; while in Fermanagh the Scots seemed to be so little at home that they handed over their lands to the English, who here established a strong colony, from which have sprung some of the best known names among the English in Ireland. Into these districts of Ulster both English and Scottish emigrants, but especially the latter, continued to stream at intervals during the whole of the seventeenth century.........
The allotments of lands by King James to the Scottish, English and native "undertakers" in the six escheated counties of Tyrone, Armagh, Cavan, Londonderry, Fermanagh and Donegal are shown in the tabulations given below. Where transfers or reconveyances of the estates were made prior to 1620, the fact is also noted.
The following were the precints or baronies set apart for the Scottish undertakers, and the allotments to each individual, for nearly all of which grants were issued in 1610.
PRECINCT OF KNOCKNINNY - 9000 acres
1) 3000 acres to Michael Balfoure [or Balfour], Lord Burley, Pittendreich, Fifeshire. Transferred to Sir James Balfour
2) 1500 acres to Michael Balfoure, his son, Fifeshire. Transferred to Sir Stephen Butler.
3) 1500 acres to Sir John Wishart [or Wisehart], Knt., Laird Pettaro, Forfarshire. Transferred to Sir Stephen Butler
4) 1000 acres to Thomas Monepenny [or Moneypenny], Laird of Kinkell, Fifeshire
5) 1000 acres to James Trayle, Esq., Fifeshire. Sold to Sir Stephen Butler, 4th August
6) 1000 acres to George Smelhome [or Smailholme], Leith, Edinburghshire. Sold to Sir Stephen Butler, 26 August, 1618.
PRECINCT OF MAGHERABOY -9000 acres
1) 2000 acres to Sir John Home [Hume], Knt., Manderston, Berwickshire
2)1500 acres to Robert Hamilton (son of Gilbert Hamilton of Raplock), Portions sold to Archibald Hamilton, 1st December, 1614 and balance sold to Malcolm Hamilton.
3) 1000 acres to James Gibb (son of John Gibb). Conveyed to John Archdale by James Hamilton , 26 th February, 1617
4) 1000 acres to Jerome Lindsey, Esq., Leith, Edinburghshire. Sold to Sir William Cole, 16th October, 1612
5) 1500 acres to William Fowler, Esq., Sold to John Home, 26th July, 1615
6) 1000 acres to Alexander Home (brother of John), Berwickshire. Sold to Sir John Home
7) 1000 acres to John Dunbarr, Esq., Mochrum, Wigtonshire.
PRICINCT OF CLANCALLY -5000 acres
1) 1000 acres to Sir Hugh Wirrall, Yorkshire and Middlesex
2) 1000 acres to Robert Bogas, Suffolkshire. Sold before 1620
3) 1000 acres to Robert Calvert, gent. Sold before 1620
4) 1000 acres to John Sedborough, Esq.
5) 1000 acres to Thomas Flowerdewe, Esq., Norfolk
PRICINCT OF LURG AND COOLEMAKARNAN -9000 acres
1) 1000 acres to Thomas Flowerdewe, Esq.
2) 2000 acres to Thomas Blenerhassett, Esq., Norfolk
3) 2000 acres to Sir Edward Blenerhassett
4) 1000 acres to John Archdale, Suffolk
5) 1000 acres to Edward Warde, gent. Sold in 1611
6) 1000 acres to Thomas Barton, Norfolk. Sold before 1620
7) 1000 acres to Henry Honynge [or Hunings], Suffolk. Sold before 1620
PRICINCT OF CLINAWLY -2246 acres
1) 1500 acres to Sir John Davys, Knt., Attorny-General
2) 500 acres to Samuel Harrison, Esq.
3) 246 acres to Peter Mostin, gent, Flintshire (Whales)
PRICINTS OF COOLE AND TIRCANNADA -4500 acres
1) 1500 acres to Sir Henry Folliott, Knt.
2) 1000 acres to William Cole, Esq.
3) 1000 acres to Roger Atkinson, Esq.
4) 1000 acres to Paul Goore, London
GRANTS TO THE NATIVE IRISH
PRICINCT OF CLINAWLY
1) 100 acres to Cormock O'Cassida, gent.
2) 300 acres to Donell dean Magwire and James McDonough Magwire, gents.
3) 150 acres to Rorie McAdegany Magwire, Owen McCoconaght Magwire, and Donell Oge O'Muldoon, gents
4) 100 acres to Donough Oge Magwire, gent.,
5) 190 acres to Felim Oge Magwire, gent
6) 100 acres to Cahell McGilleduffe Magwire, gent.
7) 190 acres to Redmond McGillpatrick, gent.
8) 350 acres to Shane McHugh, gent
9) 50 acres to Donell McCormock, gent.
10) 50 acres to Coconaght McHugh, gent.
11) 50 acres to Donough Oge McHugh, gent.
12) 145 acres to Donough Oge McDonaghy Magwire, gent
13) 50 acres to Felim McAwly, gent.
14) 145 acres to Bryan Oge Magwire, gent.
15) 50 acres to Donough McRorie, gent.
16) 100 acres to Rorie Magwire, gent.
17) 120 acres to Thomas McJames McDun Magwire, Bryan McJames McDun Magwire, and Hugh McJames McDun Magwire, gents.
18) 300 acres to Tirlagh Moyle Magwire, gent.
19) 220 acres to Bryan McThomas [Magwire], gent
20) 120 acres to Patrick McDonell, gent.
21) 130 acres to Shane McEnabb [or McCabe], gent.
22) 140 acres to Patrick McHugh Magwire
23) 120 acres to Bryan O'Corcoran, gent.
24) 140 acres to Edmund McBryan McShane, gent.
25) 100 acres to Felim Duffe McBrien, gent.
26) 100 acres to Cormocke McDonell, gent.
27) 100 acres to Connor McTirlagh, gent.
28) 240 acres to Bryan McMulrony, gent.
29) 140 acres to John Magwire, gent.
30) 150 acres to Donell Groome McArte, gent.
31) 192 acres to Hugh O'Flanegan, gent.
32) 390 acres to Oghy O'Hossy, gent.
33) 180 acres to Cormac Oge McHugh, gent.
34) 60 acres to Shane McDenett, gent.
35) 120 acres to Shane McDonell Ballagh and Brian O'Slanlan
36) 96 acres to Shane Evarr Magwire, gent.
37) 96 acres to Cormock McBryan Magwire, gent.
38) 144 acres to Cormock McCallo Magwire, gent.
39) 48 acres to Conogher Glasse Magwire, gent.
40) 48 acres to Henry McElynan, gent.
41) 48 acres to Felim McElynan, gent.
42) 50 acres to Melaghlin Oge McCorr, gent.
43) 100 acres to Connell McWorrin, gent.
44) 100 acres to Moriertagh O'Flanegan, gent.
45) 96 acres to Hugh Boy Magwire, gent.
46) 50 acres to Patrick McHugh, gent.
47) 190 acres to Rorie McDonough Magwire and Pat Ballagh Magwire, gents.
48) 100 acres to Tirlagh Mergagh Magwire and Felim Duffe McRorie Magwire, gents.
49) 60 acres to Garrett Magwire and John Magwire, gents.
PRICINCTS OF COOLE AND TIRCANNADA
1) 1500 acres to Con McShane O'Neale
2) 2000 acres to Bryan Magwire, gent.
3) 500 acres to Tirlagh Magwire, gent. (brother of Bryan)
4) 120 acres to John Magwire, gent.
5) 120 acres to Richard Magwire, gent.
In a report commissioned by the king in 1611, we have this picture of Fermanagh.........
Precinct of Knockninny;
Lo. Burley, 3000 acres, in the county of Fermanagh; took possession in the summer 1610, returned to Scotland, left as his agent, Captain Meldrame. who is non-resident. Lo. Burley hath sent over 24 persons, freeholders, tenants, and servants, resident. One large house built of 14 rooms; oaks felled and squared, and preparations for building; 60 barrels of barley and oats sown and reaped last harvest; 70 cows brought out from Scotland which belong to the tenants; and a boat of eight tons built for his lordship's use. Sir John Wyshard, La. Pittaro, 1500 acres; possession taken; returned to Scotland; done nothing. He is since our return from the north arrived and brought with him 15 persons well armed; he hath set up two ploughs sowing wheat and intends to go forward with building. Mr Balfore, La. Mountwhany, 1500 acres; appeared in person, brought over eight freeholders and lease-holders with four women servants. He felled 200 oaks, provided lime, and brought over a dozen horses and mares for work, with household stuff. La. Kinalle, 1000 acres; not appeared and none for him; nothing done. James Trayle, 1000 acres; took possession, returned to cotland. Sent over four persons to make freeholders, &c. Some timber and other material provided, and six horses and mares out of Scotland. George Smolhome, 1000 acres, taken possession, returned to Scotland; no agent, nothing done.
Precinct of Mageriboy;
Sir John Home, Knight, 2000 acres; has taken possession, returned to Scotland, nothing done, nor any agent present. Robert Hamylton, 1500 acres; has been here to see the land, but has not taken possession, and nothing done. But since our return [to Dublin] he is arrived in Fermanagh (as we are informed) with 18 tenants and artificers for planting; with 60 head of cattle, 10 horses and mares for labour; is felling timber and providing materials for building. William Fouler, 1500 acres; taken possession; returned to Scotland, done nothing. James Gybb, 1000 acres; the like. Jerhome Lindsey, 1000 acres; took possession by attorney, done nothing else. Alexander Home, 1000 acres, the like. John Downebarr, 1000 acres, taken possession, returned to Scotland, and sent over six persons, whereof two freeholders, one leaseholder, one tenant for years, and two tenants at will; some building in hand; eight horses for work brought over, with money to provide materials.
Precincts of Clancally and Lurg and Coolemakernan
Thomas Flowerdew, 2000 acres; is resident, has brought over two freeholders and five fine copyholders; he cast a trench about an old Rath, and is building an English house, of 50 feet long and 22 broad, providing materials. Edward Warde, 1000 acres; has not appeared, nor any for him; nothing done. Thomas Plumsteed has made over his portion to Sir Hugh Worrall; nothing done. Thomas Chiney, 1000 acres, has not appeared, nor any one for him; nothing done. Henry Gunning [Honynge], 1000 acres; has taken possession, but nothing done. John Sedborough, 1000 acres, is resident with his wife and family; has brought over two freeholders, one leaseholder, and three copyholders; felled timber, raised stones, set up an oven, and two chimneys in his house, and intends to go in hand with his bawne. Robert Calvert, 1000 acres; is resident; has built a house after the English manner. Has two families of English, unto whom he will give estates. Six other families have promised to come unto him at May next. Robert Bogas, 1000 acres; has not appeared, nor any for him; nothing done. John Archdale, 1000 acres; the like.
There is a fair and strong wall newly erected of lime and stone, 26 foot high with flankers, a parapet, and a walk on the top of the wall, built by Captain William Colle [Cole], constable thereof, towards which he had 200 lbs sterling from the king. A fair house begun upon the foundation of the old castle, with other convenient houses for store and munition, which, besides the laying out of the captains own money, will draw on some increase of charge to the king. The bawn is ditched about with a fair large ditch and the river on one side, with a good drawbridge. The King hath three good boats there ready to attend all services. A large piece of ground adjoins the fort with a good timber house, after the English fashion, built by the captain, in which he and his family now dwell.
A NOTE HOW THE PLANTATION GOES FORWARD IN FARMANOCH, AND WHAT THE UNDERTAKERS HAVE DONE THERE AND THEIR PROCEEDINGS:::
(1) Barony of Lorge -First, Sir Edward Blennerhassett, whose son as agent for his father is there, and with him six persons, of which two have their wives, but whether they are to be leaseholders or freeholders we knoweth not until his father's coming. They are all well armed. They have made one English house, with three rooms beneeth, a chimney and an oven with a loft, and part of the house is already thatched; someboards are already sawed for the loft and about fifteen trees felled and squared. For cattle they have four mares and a horse, and have brought a dozen head of cattle, or thereabout. For lime and stone I see none
(2) Thomas Blennerhassett has with him six persons, one a joiner, another a carpenter, and three other workmen with one tenant. He has built a boat, and has broken stones for lime and some burnt; and thirty trees felled; some squared and sawed; a fair large Irish house, with windows and rooms after the English manner, wherein is a new kitchen with a stone chimney and an oven. For cattle three horses, a mare and some thirteen head of other cattle.
(3) Barony of Clankelly. - Thomas Flowerdew, has with him six persons one a carpenter, others freeholders and leaseholders; has built an Irish house with a chimney at one end, made of wattles, contrived in two rooms, and a frame for a timber house of birch, most part of it is to be set up within a Danes fort. He has a plow of mares and garrons, two English horses, an English mare, one cow, with some three or four bullocks for their provision, and some few arms.
(4) Sir Hugh Worral has his brother there taking up his rent, but as yet, nothing else goes forward.
(5) Mr. Sudborough has with him eight men well armed, including two sons, and one, Mr Stokes, a leaseholder; he has contrived an Irish house into three rooms and has built a wattled chimney in it. He has one plough of mares and garrons, an English horse and mare, and 20 head of cows.
(6) Robert Culvert has with him six persons furnished well with pieces and pikes, and one leaseholder, has built an Irish house in three rooms and a wattled chimney in the end. He has a plough of garrons and three English horses, and about 15 cows; 20 trees felled towards building.
(7) Barony of Knockninny - Lord Burleigh. His agent, Mr. Mildron, has 20 men well furnished with pikes and pieces; has a house built with six couples, the ends with a double chimney in the middle; 108 trees felled, and two kilns of lime burnt of the stones of Castleske. Cattle; 40 cows and two ploughs of garrons and horses.
(8) Sir John Wisherd, is newly come over with some 15 persons well arrived; has two ploughs, is now sowing wheat; and likeliest to go forward of any of the undertakers
(9) Barony of Terlagh - Sir John Hume's man is there recieving his rents and duties, but nothing done.
(10) Mr. Hamleton has come lately, and with him 10 people, with 14 garrons and horses, and is buying cattle daily; is about to set up a plow or two instantly. As yet nothing built.
(11) Mr. Dunbar's brother is there taking up his duties and rent, but doth nothing else that I see.
For all the rest some of them came and saw the land and went their ways, and what order they took, I know not, and what is above written is all that I have seen.
22nd Setember, 1611
ABSTRACT OF NICHOLAS PYNNER'S SURVEY IN 1619 --COUNTY FERMANAGH
Precinct of Knockninny:
1. 3000 acres, Sir James Belfour (transferred from Michael Balfour, father of James); great number of men at work building a castle and bawn; schoolhouse built; church under way; town of 40 houses near the castle, all inhabited with British tenants; able to produce 82 men with arms.
2. 1500 acres, Sir Stephen Butler (transferred from Michael Balfour, Jr.); 12 lessees able to produce 15 men with arms.
3. 1500 acres, Sir Stephen Butler (transferred from Sir John Wishart); a stone house and bawn; 17 lessees, able to produce 66 men with arms.
4. 1000 acres, George Adwick, guardian of David Crichton, son of Thomas Crichton, deceased (transferred from Thomas Moneypenny); bawn of stone enclosing a poor thatched house; 6 freeholders, 4 lessees.
5. 1000 acres, George Adwick, agent for Sir Stephen Butler (grantee of James Trayle); no British tenants.
6. 1000 acres, Sir Stephen Butler (grantee of George Smelhome); stone house and bawn; three lessees [Richard Buckland, Robert Montgomerye, Charles Waterhouse]; able to produce 15 men.
Total in Knockninny Precinct, 6 freeholders, 76 lessees; able to produce 178 men with arms.
Precinct of Magheriboy:
1. 2000 acres, Sir John Home; castle and bawn; a village near containing 24 families; 4 freeholders, 9 lessees, 11 cottagers; able to produce 30 men with arms.
2. 1500 acres, Malcolm Hamilton (grantee of Sir Robert Hamilton); a strong castle but no bawn; 3 freeholders (Robert Weire, Gabriel Coningham, James Somerville); 11 lessees (Daniel Elliott, Gabriel Coningham Jr., Alexander Coningham, Matthew Chambers, David Cathcart, Gilbert Lainge, John Watson, William Crawford, John Hall, George Deinbane, John Greer, William Hall, Thomas Cranston); able to produce 77 men with arms.
3. 1000 acres, John Archdale (grantee from James Gibb); stone bawn and house; 6 freeholders, 5 lessees, 3 cottagers; able to produce 26 men with arms.
4. 1000 acres, Sir William Cole (grantee of Jerome Lindsay); stone castle and bawn; windmill; 2 freeholders, 11 lessees, able to produce 34 men. [among William Cole's grantees in 1613 were Thomas Shaw of Enniskillen, Clinton Ogle and Richard Orme)
5. 1500 acres, Sir John Home or Hume (grantee of William Fowler); nothing built; 3 freeholders, 12 lessees; able to produce 30 men.
6. 1000 acres, George Home, agent for his father, Sir John Home (grantee of Alexander Home); stone bawn; 3 lessees.
7. 1000 acres, John Dunbar; stone bawn and two water mills; 2 freeholders, 7 lessees; able to produce 60 men with arms.
Total in Magheriboy Precinct, 20 freeholders, 58 lessees, 14 cottagers; able to produce 257 men.
Precinct of Clancally
1. 1000 acres, Sir Hugh Wirrall; a bawn of stone built 60 feet square; and small stone house within, standing waste; no tenants.
2. 1000 acres, Edward Hatton (grantee of Robert Bogas); strong stone house and bawn; water mill; village of 10 houses; 2 freeholders (Nicholas Willoughby was one of these in 1629), 5 lessees, 8 cottagers; able to produce 20 men with arms.
3. 1000 acres, George Ridgeway (grantee of Robert Calvert); a stone bawn building; 1 freeholder, 7 lessees; able to produce 12 men with arms.
4. 1000 acres, John Sedborough; a poor sod bawn; 6 lessees, said to be 12 more; able to produce 24 men. [The names of several British tenants are mentioned in the Inquisitions of Ulster, Fermanagh, as occupying lands on this proportion about the year 1630; Hugh Stokes, Clinton Maunde, Robert Allen, Faithful Teate, Christopher Gascoine, Robert Newcomen, William Stamers, Stephen Allen, Randulph Daye, John and Thomas Tybbals, Toby Vesie, Joseph Dickinson]
5. 1000 acres, Thomas Flowerdewe; small stone house and large stone bawn; village of 5 houses; 2 freeholders, 14 lessees; able to produce 40 men.
Total of Clancally Precinct; 5 freeholders, 44 lessees, 8 cottagers; able to produce 96 men with arms.
Precinct of Lurg and Coolemakernan
1. 1000 acres, Thomas Flowerdewe; nothing built.
2. 2000 acres, Thomas Blenerhassett; stone bawn and house; church in building; village of 6 houses; 4 freeholders, 3 lessees; able to produce 26 men.
3. 2000 acres, Sir Edward Blenerhassett; stone house and strong stone bawn; village of 9 houses; 4 freeholders, 22 British families; able to produce 40 men with arms.
4. 1000 acres, John Archdale; bawn and house; water mill; 2 villages containing 8 houses each; 6 freeholders [in 1629 they were William and Thomas Lawton, William Johnson, Owen Griffith, Thomas Clarke, Edward Moore, Thomas Moore, David Byas], 10 lessees, 4 cottagers; able to produce 42 men with arms.
5. 1000 acres, Sir Gerard Lowther (grantee through Harrington Sutton of Edward Warde); stone house and bawn; water mill; village of 10 houses; 2 freeholders, 12 lessees; able to produce 28 men with arms.
6. 1000 acres, Sir Gerard Lowther (grantee of Thomas Barton); stone bawn but no house; 5 freeholders, 1 lessee.
7. 1000 acres, Edward Sibthorp and Harry Flower (conveyed from Henry Honyng); stone bawnstanding waste and used as a pound for cattle; a village containing 14 houses; 2 lessees.
Total for Lurg and Coolemarkernan; 21 freeholders, 28 lessees, 4 cottagers; able to produce 136 men with arms.
Precinct of Clinawly
1. 1500 acres, Sir John Davys; a fair stone house built on the abbey lands, but no bawn.
2. 500 acres, Captain Samuel Harrison's widow; nothing built.
3. 300 acres, Peter Mostin; nothing built.
Precinct of Coole and Tircannada
1. 1500 acres Sir Henry Folliott; stone house and bawn; water mill; a town of 11 houses inhabited with Scottish and English families.
2. 1000 acres, Captain Roger Atkinson; stone house and bawn; water mill; tucking mill; 2 freeholders.
3. 1000 acres, Sir William Cole; stone bawn; water mill; 7 lessees; able to produce 18 men with arms.
4. 1000 acres, Captain Paul Gore; stone bawn and house; 8 British families.